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But an even bigger facility would be needed for the mammoth rocket required for the crewed lunar mission, so land acquisition was started in July for a Launch Operations Center LOC immediately north of Canaveral at Merritt Island.
The design, development and construction of the center was conducted by Kurt H. Debus , a member of Dr. Wernher von Braun 's original V-2 rocket engineering team.
Debus was named the LOC's first Director. Administrator Webb realized that in order to keep Apollo costs under control, he had to develop greater project management skills in his organization, so he recruited Dr.
George E. Mueller for a high management job. Mueller accepted, on the condition that he have a say in NASA reorganization necessary to effectively administer Apollo.
Brainerd Holmes on his retirement effective September 1. Based on his industry experience on Air Force missile projects, Mueller realized some skilled managers could be found among high-ranking officers in the United States Air Force , so he got Webb's permission to recruit General Samuel C.
Phillips , who gained a reputation for his effective management of the Minuteman program, as OMSF program controller.
Phillips' superior officer Bernard A. Mueller agreed, and Phillips managed Apollo from January , until it achieved the first human landing in July , after which he returned to Air Force duty.
Once Kennedy had defined a goal, the Apollo mission planners were faced with the challenge of designing a spacecraft that could meet it while minimizing risk to human life, cost, and demands on technology and astronaut skill.
Four possible mission modes were considered:. In early , direct ascent was generally the mission mode in favor at NASA.
Many engineers feared that rendezvous and docking, maneuvers which had not been attempted in Earth orbit , would be nearly impossible in lunar orbit.
Throughout and , Houbolt campaigned for the recognition of LOR as a viable and practical option. Bypassing the NASA hierarchy, he sent a series of memos and reports on the issue to Associate Administrator Robert Seamans; while acknowledging that he spoke "somewhat as a voice in the wilderness", Houbolt pleaded that LOR should not be discounted in studies of the question.
Seamans' establishment of an ad hoc committee headed by his special technical assistant Nicholas E.
Golovin in July , to recommend a launch vehicle to be used in the Apollo program, represented a turning point in NASA's mission mode decision.
Its consideration of LOR—as well as Houbolt's ceaseless work—played an important role in publicizing the workability of the approach. But even after NASA reached internal agreement, it was far from smooth sailing.
Kennedy's science advisor Jerome Wiesner , who had expressed his opposition to human spaceflight to Kennedy before the President took office,  and had opposed the decision to land people on the Moon, hired Golovin, who had left NASA, to chair his own "Space Vehicle Panel", ostensibly to monitor, but actually to second-guess NASA's decisions on the Saturn V launch vehicle and LOR by forcing Shea, Seamans, and even Webb to defend themselves, delaying its formal announcement to the press on July 11, , and forcing Webb to still hedge the decision as "tentative".
Wiesner kept up the pressure, even making the disagreement public during a two-day September visit by the President to Marshall Space Flight Center.
Wiesner blurted out "No, that's no good" in front of the press, during a presentation by von Braun. Webb jumped in and defended von Braun, until Kennedy ended the squabble by stating that the matter was "still subject to final review".
Wiesner finally relented, unwilling to settle the dispute once and for all in Kennedy's office, because of the President's involvement with the October Cuban Missile Crisis , and fear of Kennedy's support for Webb.
Without NASA's adoption of this stubbornly held minority opinion in , the United States may still have reached the Moon, but almost certainly it would not have been accomplished by the end of the s, President Kennedy's target date.
The LOR method had the advantage of allowing the lander spacecraft to be used as a "lifeboat" in the event of a failure of the command ship.
Some documents prove this theory was discussed before and after the method was chosen. The lunar module provided propulsion, electrical power and life support to get the crew home safely.
Faget's preliminary Apollo design employed a cone-shaped command module, supported by one of several service modules providing propulsion and electrical power, sized appropriately for the space station, cislunar, and lunar landing missions.
Once Kennedy's Moon landing goal became official, detailed design began of a command and service module CSM in which the crew would spend the entire direct-ascent mission and lift off from the lunar surface for the return trip, after being soft-landed by a larger landing propulsion module.
The command module CM was the conical crew cabin, designed to carry three astronauts from launch to lunar orbit and back to an Earth ocean landing.
It was the only component of the Apollo spacecraft to survive without major configuration changes as the program evolved from the early Apollo study designs.
Its exterior was covered with an ablative heat shield , and had its own reaction control system RCS engines to control its attitude and steer its atmospheric entry path.
Parachutes were carried to slow its descent to splashdown. The module was A cylindrical service module SM supported the command module, with a service propulsion engine and an RCS with propellants, and a fuel cell power generation system with liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen reactants.
A high-gain S-band antenna was used for long-distance communications on the lunar flights. On the extended lunar missions, an orbital scientific instrument package was carried.
The service module was discarded just before reentry. Because the CSM design was started early before the selection of lunar orbit rendezvous, the service propulsion engine was sized to lift the CSM off the Moon, and thus was oversized to about twice the thrust required for translunar flight.
A program definition study concluded that the initial design should be continued as Block I which would be used for early testing, while Block II, the actual lunar spacecraft, would incorporate the docking equipment and take advantage of the lessons learned in Block I development.
The Apollo Lunar Module LM was designed to descend from lunar orbit to land two astronauts on the Moon and take them back to orbit to rendezvous with the command module.
Not designed to fly through the Earth's atmosphere or return to Earth, its fuselage was designed totally without aerodynamic considerations and was of an extremely lightweight construction.
It consisted of separate descent and ascent stages, each with its own engine. The descent stage contained storage for the descent propellant, surface stay consumables, and surface exploration equipment.
The ascent stage contained the crew cabin, ascent propellant, and a reaction control system. Before the Apollo program began, Wernher von Braun and his team of rocket engineers had started work on plans for very large launch vehicles, the Saturn series , and the even larger Nova series.
This was changed by the time human flights began. Since Apollo, like Mercury, would require a launch escape system LES in case of a launch failure, a relatively small rocket was required for qualification flight testing of this system.
The S-V third stage flew inactively on Saturn I four times. The first four Saturn I test flights were launched from LC, with only the first stage live, carrying dummy upper stages filled with water.
The last three of these further supported the Apollo program by also carrying Pegasus satellites, which verified the safety of the translunar environment by measuring the frequency and severity of micrometeorite impacts.
It was 33 feet Slayton was responsible for making all Gemini and Apollo crew assignments. Thirty-two astronauts were assigned to fly missions in the Apollo program.
Twenty-four of these left Earth's orbit and flew around the Moon between December and December three of them twice.
Half of the 24 walked on the Moon's surface, though none of them returned to it after landing once. One of the moonwalkers was a trained geologist.
The Apollo astronauts were chosen from the Project Mercury and Gemini veterans, plus from two later astronaut groups. All missions were commanded by Gemini or Mercury veterans.
Crews on all development flights except the Earth orbit CSM development flights through the first two landings on Apollo 11 and Apollo 12 , included at least two sometimes three Gemini veterans.
Harrison Schmitt , a geologist, was the first NASA scientist astronaut to fly in space, and landed on the Moon on the last mission, Apollo Schmitt participated in the lunar geology training of all of the Apollo landing crews.
NASA awarded all 32 of these astronauts its highest honor, the Distinguished Service Medal , given for "distinguished service, ability, or courage", and personal "contribution representing substantial progress to the NASA mission".
The medals were awarded posthumously to Grissom, White, and Chaffee in , then to the crews of all missions from Apollo 8 onward. The crew that flew the first Earth orbital test mission Apollo 7 , Walter M.
The first lunar landing mission was planned to proceed as follows: . The third stage burns a small portion of its fuel to achieve orbit.
Translunar injection After one to two orbits to verify readiness of spacecraft systems, the S-IVB third stage reignites for about six minutes to send the spacecraft to the Moon.
The lunar voyage takes between two and three days. Midcourse corrections are made as necessary using the SM engine.
Powered descent At perilune, the descent engine fires again to start the descent. The CDR takes control after pitchover for a vertical landing.
The ascent stage lifts off, using the descent stage as a launching pad. Atmospheric drag slows the CM. Aerodynamic heating surrounds it with an envelope of ionized air which causes a communications blackout for several minutes.
Parachutes are deployed, slowing the CM for a splashdown in the Pacific Ocean. The astronauts are recovered and brought to an aircraft carrier.
The first, AS launched on February 26, reached an altitude of These flights validated the service module engine and the command module heat shield.
It carried a nose cone instead of the Apollo spacecraft, and its payload was the unburned liquid hydrogen fuel, the behavior of which engineers measured with temperature and pressure sensors, and a TV camera.
This flight occurred on July 5, before AS, which was delayed because of problems getting the Apollo spacecraft ready for flight. The Senior Pilot would assume navigation duties, while the Pilot would function as a systems engineer.
The astronauts would begin wearing a new Apollo A6L spacesuit , designed to accommodate lunar extravehicular activity EVA.
The traditional visor helmet was replaced with a clear "fishbowl" type for greater visibility, and the lunar surface EVA suit would include a water-cooled undergarment.
Eisele as Pilot. But Eisele dislocated his shoulder twice aboard the KC weightlessness training aircraft , and had to undergo surgery on January Slayton replaced him with Chaffee.
In December , the AS mission was canceled, since the validation of the CSM would be accomplished on the day first flight, and AS would have been devoted to space experiments and contribute no new engineering knowledge about the spacecraft.
The spacecraft for the AS and AS missions were delivered by North American Aviation to the Kennedy Space Center with long lists of equipment problems which had to be corrected before flight; these delays caused the launch of AS to slip behind AS, and eliminated hopes the first crewed mission might be ready to launch as soon as November , concurrently with the last Gemini mission.
Eventually, the planned AS flight date was pushed to February 21, The initial assembly of AS had to use a dummy spacer spool in place of the stage.
The problems with North American were severe enough in late to cause Manned Space Flight Administrator George Mueller to appoint program director Samuel Phillips to head a " tiger team " to investigate North American's problems and identify corrections.
Phillips documented his findings in a December 19 letter to NAA president Lee Atwood , with a strongly worded letter by Mueller, and also gave a presentation of the results to Mueller and Deputy Administrator Robert Seamans.
They trained and conducted tests of their spacecraft at North American, and in the altitude chamber at the Kennedy Space Center.
A "plugs-out" test was planned for January, which would simulate a launch countdown on LC with the spacecraft transferring from pad-supplied to internal power.
If successful, this would be followed by a more rigorous countdown simulation test closer to the February 21 launch, with both spacecraft and launch vehicle fueled.
The plugs-out test began on the morning of January 27, , and immediately was plagued with problems. First, the crew noticed a strange odor in their spacesuits which delayed the sealing of the hatch.
Then, communications problems frustrated the astronauts and forced a hold in the simulated countdown. Pressure rose high enough from the fire that the cabin inner wall burst, allowing the fire to erupt onto the pad area and frustrating attempts to rescue the crew.
The astronauts were asphyxiated before the hatch could be opened. NASA immediately convened an accident review board, overseen by both houses of Congress.
While the determination of responsibility for the accident was complex, the review board concluded that "deficiencies existed in command module design, workmanship and quality control".
Crew members would also exclusively wear modified, fire-resistant A7L Block II space suits, and would be designated by the Block II titles, regardless of whether a LM was present on the flight or not.
On April 24, , Mueller published an official Apollo mission numbering scheme, using sequential numbers for all flights, crewed or uncrewed.
In September , Mueller approved a sequence of mission types which had to be successfully accomplished in order to achieve the crewed lunar landing.
Each step had to be successfully accomplished before the next ones could be performed, and it was unknown how many tries of each mission would be necessary; therefore letters were used instead of numbers.
The list of types covered follow-on lunar exploration to include H lunar landings, I for lunar orbital survey missions, and J for extended-stay lunar landings.
The capability of the command module's heat shield to survive a trans-lunar reentry was demonstrated by using the service module engine to ram it into the atmosphere at higher than the usual Earth-orbital reentry speed.
The LM engines were successfully test-fired and restarted, despite a computer programming error which cut short the first descent stage firing.
The ascent engine was fired in abort mode, known as a "fire-in-the-hole" test, where it was lit simultaneously with jettison of the descent stage.
Although Grumman wanted a second uncrewed test, George Low decided the next LM flight would be crewed. The intent of this mission was to achieve trans-lunar injection, followed closely by a simulated direct-return abort, using the service module engine to achieve another high-speed reentry.
The Saturn V experienced pogo oscillation , a problem caused by non-steady engine combustion, which damaged fuel lines in the second and third stages.
Two S-II engines shut down prematurely, but the remaining engines were able to compensate. The damage to the third stage engine was more severe, preventing it from restarting for trans-lunar injection.
Mission controllers were able to use the service module engine to essentially repeat the flight profile of Apollo 4.
It was an day Earth-orbital flight which tested the CSM systems. This would keep the program on track. The Soviet Union had sent two tortoises, mealworms, wine flies, and other lifeforms around the Moon on September 15, , aboard Zond 5 , and it was believed they might soon repeat the feat with human cosmonauts.
Gemini veterans Frank Borman and Jim Lovell , and rookie William Anders captured the world's attention by making ten lunar orbits in 20 hours, transmitting television pictures of the lunar surface on Christmas Eve , and returning safely to Earth.
Stafford , John Young and Eugene Cernan. The astronauts returned safely on July Bean made a precision landing on Apollo 12 within walking distance of the Surveyor 3 uncrewed lunar probe, which had landed in April on the Ocean of Storms.
The command module pilot was Gemini veteran Richard F. Gordon Jr. Conrad and Bean carried the first lunar surface color television camera, but it was damaged when accidentally pointed into the Sun.
The success of the first two landings allowed the remaining missions to be crewed with a single veteran as commander, with two rookies.
But two days out, a liquid oxygen tank exploded, disabling the service module and forcing the crew to use the LM as a "lifeboat" to return to Earth.
Another NASA review board was convened to determine the cause, which turned out to be a combination of damage of the tank in the factory, and a subcontractor not making a tank component according to updated design specifications.
The contracted batch of 15 Saturn Vs was enough for lunar landing missions through Apollo NASA publicized a preliminary list of eight more planned landing sites, with plans to increase the mass of the CSM and LM for the last five missions, along with the payload capacity of the Saturn V.
These final missions would combine the I and J types in the list, allowing the CMP to operate a package of lunar orbital sensors and cameras while his companions were on the surface, and allowing them to stay on the Moon for over three days.
Also, the Block II spacesuit was revised for the extended missions to allow greater flexibility and visibility for driving the LRV.
About the time of the first landing in , it was decided to use an existing Saturn V to launch the Skylab orbital laboratory pre-built on the ground, replacing the original plan to construct it in orbit from several Saturn IB launches; this eliminated Apollo NASA's yearly budget also began to shrink in light of the successful landing, and NASA also had to make funds available for the development of the upcoming Space Shuttle.
By , the decision was made to also cancel missions 18 and Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. The cutbacks forced mission planners to reassess the original planned landing sites in order to achieve the most effective geological sample and data collection from the remaining four missions.
Apollo 15 had been planned to be the last of the H series missions, but since there would be only two subsequent missions left, it was changed to the first of three J missions.
In August , just after conclusion of the Apollo 15 mission, President Richard Nixon proposed canceling the two remaining lunar landing missions, Apollo 16 and Office of Management and Budget Deputy Director Caspar Weinberger was opposed to this, and persuaded Nixon to keep the remaining missions.
Scott and Irwin landed on July 30 near Hadley Rille , and spent just under two days, 19 hours on the surface. Apollo 16 landed in the Descartes Highlands on April 20, Young and Duke spent just under three days on the surface, with a total of over 20 hours EVA.
Apollo 17 was the last of the Apollo program, landing in the Taurus—Littrow region in December Eugene Cernan commanded Ronald E.
Harrison H. The rocks collected from the Moon are extremely old compared to rocks found on Earth, as measured by radiometric dating techniques.
They range in age from about 3. Almost all the rocks show evidence of impact process effects. Many samples appear to be pitted with micrometeoroid impact craters, which is never seen on Earth rocks, due to the thick atmosphere.
Many show signs of being subjected to high-pressure shock waves that are generated during impact events.
Some of the returned samples are of impact melt materials melted near an impact crater. All samples returned from the Moon are highly brecciated as a result of being subjected to multiple impact events.
Analysis of the composition of the lunar samples supports the giant impact hypothesis , that the Moon was created through impact of a large astronomical body with the Earth.
Accurate estimates of human spaceflight costs were difficult in the early s, as the capability was new and management experience was lacking. Project Apollo was a massive undertaking, representing the largest research and development project in peacetime.
At its peak, it employed over , employees and contractors around the country and accounted for more than half of NASA's total spending in the s.
After the first Moon landing, public and political interest waned, including that of President Nixon, who wanted to rein in federal spending.
The final fiscal year of Apollo funding was Looking beyond the crewed lunar landings, NASA investigated several post-lunar applications for Apollo hardware.
Astronauts would continue to use the CSM as a ferry to the station. The workshop was to be supplemented by the Apollo Telescope Mount , which could be attached to the ascent stage of the lunar module via a rack.
The S-IVB orbital workshop was the only one of these plans to make it off the drawing board. Dubbed Skylab , it was assembled on the ground rather than in space, and launched in using the two lower stages of a Saturn V.
It was equipped with an Apollo Telescope Mount. Skylab's last crew departed the station on February 8, , and the station itself re-entered the atmosphere in The Apollo—Soyuz program also used Apollo hardware for the first joint nation spaceflight, paving the way for future cooperation with other nations in the Space Shuttle and International Space Station programs.
The detail is such that if Neil Armstrong were walking there now, we could make him out, make out his footsteps even, like the astronaut footpath clearly visible in the photos of the Apollo 14 site.
Perhaps the wistfulness is caused by the sense of simple grandeur in those Apollo missions. Perhaps, too, it's a reminder of the risk we all felt after the Eagle had landed—the possibility that it might be unable to lift off again and the astronauts would be stranded on the Moon.
But it may also be that a photograph like this one is as close as we're able to come to looking directly back into the human past There the [Apollo 11] lunar module sits, parked just where it landed 40 years ago, as if it still really were 40 years ago and all the time since merely imaginary.
The Apollo program has been called the greatest technological achievement in human history. The crucial difference between the requirements of Apollo and the missile programs was Apollo's much greater need for reliability.
While the Navy and Air Force could work around reliability problems by deploying more missiles, the political and financial cost of failure of an Apollo mission was unacceptably high.
Technologies and techniques required for Apollo were developed by Project Gemini. The crew of Apollo 8 sent the first live televised pictures of the Earth and the Moon back to Earth, and read from the creation story in the Book of Genesis , on Christmas Eve The Apollo program also affected environmental activism in the s due to photos taken by the astronauts.
The Blue Marble was released during a surge in environmentalism, and became a symbol of the environmental movement as a depiction of Earth's frailty, vulnerability, and isolation amid the vast expanse of space.
According to The Economist , Apollo succeeded in accomplishing President Kennedy's goal of taking on the Soviet Union in the Space Race by accomplishing a singular and significant achievement, to demonstrate the superiority of the free-market system.
The publication noted the irony that in order to achieve the goal, the program required the organization of tremendous public resources within a vast, centralized government bureaucracy.
Prior to Apollo 11's 40th anniversary in , NASA searched for the original videotapes of the mission's live televised moonwalk. After an exhaustive three-year search, it was concluded that the tapes had probably been erased and reused.
A new digitally remastered version of the best available broadcast television footage was released instead. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For Baidu's autonomous vehicle Apollo project, see Apolong. Human spaceflight programs. Robotic spaceflight programs. Launch vehicles.
Mercury Gemini Apollo Space Shuttle. Main article: Apollo spacecraft feasibility study. Main article: Space Race.
Main article: Johnson Space Center. Play media. Main article: Kennedy Space Center. See also: Moon landing. Main article: Apollo spacecraft.
Main article: Apollo command and service module. Main article: Apollo Lunar Module. Main article: Little Joe II.
Main article: Saturn I. Main article: Saturn IB. Main article: Saturn V. Main article: List of Apollo astronauts.
See also: List of Apollo missions. Main article: Apollo 1. Main article: Canceled Apollo missions. This section is empty. You can help by adding to it.
October Main article: List of Apollo missions. Main article: Moon rock. Main article: Apollo Applications Program.
Further information: NASA spin-off technologies. Main article: Apollo 11 missing tapes. Apollo 11 in popular culture Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package Exploration of the Moon List of artificial objects on the Moon List of crewed spacecraft Moon landing conspiracy theories Soviet crewed lunar programs Stolen and missing Moon rocks.
Committee on Science and Astronautics. Page Washington: U. GDP Then? Retrieved September 22, July 14, Retrieved June 21, Kennedy and the Politics of National Security".
Presidential Studies Quarterly. April 20, The White House Memorandum. Boston, MA: John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum.
Retrieved August 1, July Monographs in Aerospace History. Washington, D. Key Apollo Source Documents. April 28, Office of the Vice President Memorandum.
May 25, SpaceCast News Service. Retrieved June 12, Langley Research Center. Archived from the original on June 3, Retrieved June 7, Suddenly Tomorrow Came A History of the Johnson Space Center.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration. September 12, Archived from the original on May 6, February 19, Johnson Space Center".
The American Presidency Project. University of California, Santa Barbara. Retrieved July 9, Kurt H. Kennedy Biographies. February Retrieved October 7, Johnson - Executive Order ".
Office of the Federal Register. National Archives and Records Administration. Retrieved April 26, Center Planning and Development Office.
Archived from the original on March 28, Retrieved July 29, Luizmonteiro, LLC. November February 1, The New York Times. Retrieved April 14, Chariots For Apollo , chapter 2.
September Apollo by the Numbers: A Statistical Reference. Retrieved August 8, Chariots For Apollo , chapter 3. Chariots For Apollo , chapter 4.
Lovell writes, "Naturally, I'm glad that view didn't prevail, and I'm thankful that by the time of Apollo 10, the first lunar mission carrying the LM, the LM as a lifeboat was again being discussed.
Historical Archive for Manned Missions. Retrieved September 12, April March 27, Kelly, 72, Dies; Father of Lunar Module".
Archived from the original on February 20, Retrieved March 3, See footnote Encyclopedia Astronautica.
A nuclear reactor would provide power. First the S-IVB would boost itself and the Apollo CSM on a trajectory that would pass by Venus and return to Earth, then any remaining fuel would be vented to space, after which the astronauts would live in the empty fuel tanks until they separated from the S-IVB shortly before reentry on their return to Earth.
When procurement of Saturn Vs other than those required for the lunar landing was stopped in , focus shifted to AAP.
Aside from attempting to show that Apollo presented value for money, NASA and the main contractors of Boeing , Grumman , North American Aviation and Rockwell also hoped to put off the inevitable scaling down of staff and facilities following the completion of the first Moon landing.
The Apollo Telescope Mission would be an Earth-orbiting mission for solar observation. The telescope would be docked to a CSM with a three-person crew.
Solar panels on the telescope would provide additional power, allowing an extended mission of 21—28 days. The telescope module would include a pressurized compartment providing additional living and workspace for the crew.
It was also proposed that a surplus Saturn V would launch a crewed lunar survey mission to establish suitable sites for later crewed landings.
The wet workshop space station concept provided for a low-budget Earth orbiting station. The original plan, as proposed by Wernher von Braun , used the S-II stage as the primary structure of the station, with the area normally filled by the S-IVB stage replaced with an equipment carrier.
These plans were modified to use the S-IVB when Saturn V production ended with just enough boosters for the lunar missions alone.
In the meantime several of the Earth-orbit "checkout" missions for Apollo had been canceled, leaving a number of Saturn IBs unused. The plans were changed to use the S-IVB stage, used on both rockets, as the primary station structure.
A modified S-IVB would be launched into orbit, the second stage carrying a docking module and large solar panels in the area normally carrying the LM.
A CSM would then be able to dock with the second stage and enter the now-empty fuel tanks. It was also suggested that the Apollo Telescope and Survey Mission modules might be docked to the Wet Workshop to create a modular space station.
Originally, AAP missions would alternate with Apollo lunar missions, starting in However, when NASA's budget was cut, focus was shifted to the Skylab space station proposal, which managed to accommodate the equipment already specified for some of the AAP missions.
Since the first two stages of the Saturn V had enough payload capability by themselves to place a pre-fabricated S-IVB workshop into the appropriate orbit, this enabled the "dry workshop" concept.
This allowed the interior space to be better fitted out, although many design concepts from the "wet" workshop, notably the open flooring that allowed fuel to flow through it, were kept in Skylab.
The concept of launching another Skylab into lunar orbit using a spare S-IVB was briefly discussed around the same time, but no justification could be found for it, so the project was abandoned early on.
The mission lasted from July 15 to July 24, From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: Manned Venus Flyby. Main article: Skylab.
Main article: Apollo-Soyuz Test Project. Retrieved 8 August Vance D. Brand Commander Don L. Lind Pilot. William C.Diesmal allerdings nicht auf unbestimmte Zeit, sondern nur für den Monat November. Von Julia von Heinz. Schwesterlein Weitere Musikrichtungen Microsoft Serien Stream morgen die ganze Welt Bühnen